Electrical Installations & Maintenance
The scope of electrical installation course is to help and provide the designer and user of electrical plants with the correct definition application of equipment, in numerous practical installation situations.
The dimensioning of an electrical plant requires knowledge of different factors relating to, for example, installation utilities, the electrical conductors and other components; this knowledge leads the design engineer to consult numerous documents and technical catalogues.
This electrical installation training course of Moyo Konsult Limited, however, aims to supply, in training session, for the quick definition of the main parameters of the components of an electrical plant and for the selection of the protection devices for a wide range of installations. Some application examples are included to aid comprehension of the selection tables.
The electrical installation and maintenance training program serves as a skill enhancement measure which is suitable for all those who are interested in electrical plants: useful for installers and maintenance technicians, and for sales engineers. Electrical distribution installations and systems are getting increasingly complex today and incorporate a wider range of equipment and related accessories .For safety reasons, electrical distribution within buildings must comply with Codes of Practice.
For maintenance servicing, a ready means of isolating certain parts of the whole circuit must be provided, normally in the form of main switches for each building and, for large buildings each sub-division. Electricity can pose great danger and any oversight in installation and maintenance can compromise the safety of building occupants and operatives.
Whilst not directly involved in hands-on work, managers and supervisors will require a working knowledge of the principles and practice of electrical installations and maintenance for overseeing and ensuring work quality and safety compliance. The course will provide an understanding of the rudiments of electrical installations and maintenance and working knowledge for effective supervision of electrical maintenance work and safety procedures in connection.
The course serves as a skill enhancement measures for those who have a vested interest in electrical installations and building maintenance such as developers, building owners, government officials, architects, engineers, project managers, quantity surveyors, contractors/sub-contractors/suppliers, property managers, facilities managers, maintenance managers, management corporations, town councils, and others.
Tips for Your Electrical Maintenance Plan
When implementing routine electrical maintenance, here are a few important tips to keep in mind:
- Hire the right person. Preventive electrical maintenance is not a do-it-yourself job. Just like you want a trained IT specialist to service your computers, you want a certified electrician with the proper credentials to work on your electrical system. A trained, licensed electrician will have a thorough knowledge of electrical codes and safety practices to do the job right.
- Schedule planned outages. It will be necessary to temporarily cut electricity to your business to perform maintenance. Talk to your electrician about the best time to schedule a planned outage in order to minimize the impact on customers and employees.
- Inspect with infrared technology. Thermal cameras can be used to pinpoint hidden electrical problems. This can help to find leaky windows and doors, check the integrity of your insulation, detect moisture problems and detect early warning signs of electrical failure. Catching these problems early can prevent more significant damage to equipment and wiring down the road.
- Inspect your generator(s). When bad weather hits, the last thing you need is a generator that won’t do its job. Have your electrician inspect your emergency generator on a regular basis. Get rid of old or contaminated fuel, which can clog a fuel filter. Make sure batteries are fully charged and properly installed, and set the start switch to the correct mode.
- Fix or replace faulty equipment. Electrical repairs can be as simple as keeping equipment and wiring clean and dry. Remove dust, dirt and moisture, and tighten up or replace loose or damaged components. These simple steps will keep your system working properly and avoid more expensive repairs later on.
- Look at the lights. Have your electrician check all lighting fixtures and switches. Make sure sensors and switches work and that timers are set to the correct on and off times. Pay special attention to entry and exit lights, and lights on or near stairwells.
- Keep records. Have your electrician provide written verification of the work performed and repairs made. Track inspection results over time.
Types of Electrical Installation
Practically everything around you requires some type of electrical installation. People rely on electricity foe everything from traveling and lightbulbs. An electrician consults an electrical drawing or schematic to assure he installs the electrical wiring correctly. Additionally, electricians perform a multitude of electrical installations in diverse industries, including automotive, marine and residential.
- Car Installations
Automobiles have various electrical features throughout the vehicle that require installation. Some items in a vehicle that need a person familiar with electrical wiring include satellite navigational systems, sound systems and alarms. Additionally, numerous types of wires sit beneath the dashboards and are important for the car to run.
- Residential Installations
Houses require electrical installations. For instance, brand new homes need an electrician to wire the entire house and connect the electrical wires to the power lines to receive electricity. Other items that need electrical installations include circuit breakers, wall outlets and major appliances such as dishwashers, washing machines, lights and dryers.
- Boat Installations
A variety of boats needs electrical wires to run properly. However, some larger boats also have living quarters, full-equipped kitchens and lighting throughout the vessel that require electricity. These vessels need installation of light switches, outlets and numerous wires that interconnect for objects and appliances to work. Usually a licensed electrician and numerous engineers work together to configure the right location for electrical devices and indicate each unit on electrical diagrams.
- Power Line Installations
Power lines need a professional electrician to assure a particular area receives electricity from generating plants. These high-voltage power lines connect to the national grid and supply millions of people with electricity. However, some power lines are low voltage and assure streetlights and traffic lights receive electricity to work properly.
- Commercial Installations
Commercial installations are similar to residential installations. However, commercial installations usually concentrate on larger projects such as businesses, corporations, factories and production plants. This type of installation requires that electricity spans throughout the building. During a new installation, an electrician makes sure that enough electricity gets to the particular building without overloading the circuit breaker.
WHAT MAKES A GOOD ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION?
An electrical installation comprises all the fixed electrical equipment that is supplied through the electricity meter. It includes the cables that are usually hidden in the walls and ceilings, accessories (such as sockets, switches and light fittings), and the consumer unit (fusebox) that contains all the fuses, circuit-breakers and, preferably residual current devices (RCDs)*.
There are many factors that contribute to a good electrical installation such as:
- Ensuring there are enough sockets for electrical appliances, to minimise the use of multiway socket adapters and trailing leads
- Covers are in place to prevent fingers coming into contact with live parts (broken or damaged switches should be replaced without delay)
- A Residual Current Device (RCD) protection is installed to provide additional protection against electric shock
- Satisfactory earthing arrangements are in place to ensure that a fuse or circuit breaker can quickly clear an electrical fault before it causes an electric shock or fire
- Satisfactory protective bonding arrangements are in place where required (so any electric shock risk is minimised until a fault is cleared)
- Sufficient circuits are provided to avoid danger and minimise inconvenience in the event of a fault
- Cables are correctly selected and installed in relation to the fuse or circuit breaker protecting the circuit
*An RCD (residual current device) is a life-saving device which is designed to prevent you from getting a fatal electric shock if you touch something live, such as a bare wire. It provides a level of protection that ordinary fuses or circuit breakers cannot provide.
KINDS OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION TESTING
Following tests shall be carried out: Wiring continuity test, Insulation resistance test, Earth continuity test, Earth resistivity test, Performance test, and any other tests as instructed by the Supervising Engineer.
- ELECTRICAL WIRING CONTINUITY TESTING
All wiring system shall be tested for continuity of circuits, short circuits and earthing after wiring is completed and before energizing.
- ELECTRICAL INSULATION RESISTANCE TESTING
The insulation resistance shall be measured across earth and the whole system of conductors, or any section thereof, with all fuses in place and all switches closed and except in concentric wiring all lamps in position of both poles of the installation otherwise electrically connected together.
A direct current pressure of not less than twice the working pressure provided that it does not exceed 660 V for medium voltage circuits. Where the supply is divided from AC three phase system, the neutral pole of which is connected to earth, either direct or through added resistance, pressure shall be deemed to be that which is maintained between the phase conductor and the neutral.
The insulation resistance measured as above shall not be less than 50 mega ohms divided by the number of points on the circuit provided that the whole installation, shall not be required to have an insulation resistance greater than one mega ohm.
The insulation resistance shall also be measured between all conductors connected to one phase conductor of the supply and all the conductors connected to the middle wire to the neutral or to the other phase conductors to the supply. Such a test shall be carried out after removing all metallic connections between the two poles of the installation and in these circumstances the insulation shall not be less than that specified above.
The insulation resistance between the case or frame work of housing and power appliances, and all live parts of each appliance shall not be less than that specified in the relevant British standard specification or where there is no such specification shall not be less than a mega ohm.
- ELECTRICAL EARTH CONTINUITY PATH TESTING
The earth continuity conductor metallic envelops of cables, shall be tested for electric continuity and the electrical resistance of the same along with the earthing lead but excluding any added resistance or earth leakage circuit breaker measured from the connection with the earth electrode to any point in the earth continuity conductor in the completed installation shall not exceed one ohm.
- ELECTRICAL TESTING OF NON-LINKED SINGLE POLE SWITCHES
In a two wire installation a test shall be made to verify that all non linked single pole switches have been fitted in the same conductor throughout, and such conductor shall be labeled or marked for connection, throughout, and such conductor shall be labeled or marked for connection to an outer or phase conductor or non earthed conductor a test shall be made three or four wire installation a test shall be made to verify that every non linked single pole switch is fitted in a conductor to one of the outer or phase conductor of the supply. The entire electrical installation shall be subject to the final acceptance of the Supervising engineer as well as the local authorities.
- ELECTRICAL EARTH RESISTIVITY TESTING
Earth resistivity test shall be carried out in accordance with British Standard Code of Practice of Earthing. All tests shall be carried out in the presence of the Supervising Engineer.
- ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE TESTING
The complete electrical installation and equipment shall be subject to the final performance test as intended for each and every equipment shall be tested as per the manufacturers instructions.